Raw Feeding for Dummies

Excerpt Lessons from our Raw Feeding Course

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What does my dog require? Lesson II

Your dog has several requirements that are necessary for health, health maintenance, healing, and disease prevention. If you are feeding a puppy, his or her needs are even greater and more important for proper growth and development. These are critical requirements that need your special attention.

First and foremost your dog requires food for energy. Energy is primary. Without energy there is no function, without function life ceases. So food must first provide energy. Secondly, food contains vital nutrients that your dog requires for physiological and cellular function. Your dog’s digestive system is perfectly able to release nutrients from species-appropriate foods by mechanically and chemically breaking it down into its smallest components. Once these components are released, the nutrients are then absorbed into the bloodstream via the intestinal wall where they are carried and distributed throughout the body as and where needed. Others that are in abundance are either stored in tissues or later excreted.

Your dog requires:

  1. Protein
  2. Fats
  3. Vitamins
  4. Minerals

Protein and fats both supply calories and therefore potential energy (calories). Fat should be your dog’s main fuel source with protein as secondary.

Keep in mind: These above nutrients are the known and studied essential nutrients. There are many more nutrients that science has not yet studied fully or even discovered. This is why feeding species-appropriate foods is so vital for making sure your dog is receiving an abundance of nutrients, both the known, the new and indefinite, and the yet-to-be-discovered.

Protein is needed for:

  • building, repairing, and maintaining tissues such as muscles, bones, organs, blood, cartilage, skin, and nails
  • the building, repair, and maintenance of cells
  • the production of enzymes
  • the production of hormones
  • the production of antibodies
  • the production of signaling proteins
  • the production of bodily chemicals
  • immune function
  • energy

Fat is needed for:

  • energy
  • the structural components of cells and cell wall integrity
  • carrying fat-soluble vitamins for absorption
  • physiological processes such as blood clotting, inflammatory response, and tissue healing
  • hormone production
  • brain function
  • immune function

Vitamins and minerals are needed by every cell, tissue, organ, and muscle and for every physiological function of the body. They are required for hundreds of functions and roles throughout your dog’s body.

SPECIES-APPROPRIATE FOOD SOURCES:

Protein → meat, poultry, fish, organs, eggs, milk products

Fats → meat, poultry with skin, oily fish, organs, egg yolks, bone marrow, milk products, oils

Vitamins & minerals → bones, meat, poultry, fish, organs, eggs, milk products, whole-foods supplements and powders

SPECIES-INAPPROPRIATE FOOD SOURCES that may provide benefit:

Fats → avocado, ground seeds

Vitamins & minerals → pureed vegetables, fruit, ground seeds

©2019 Kimberly Lloyd, PhD, BCHHP, Cert Raw Dog Food Nutritionist

My dog needs how many nutrients?! HELP! Lesson IV

You have already learned that your dog not only requires energy from food, but also protein, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Proteins and fats are pretty simple to source with the added bonus of also being the main energy providers. Meat and organs deliver ample amounts of amino acids, fats, and calories making providing these nutritional necessities a simple task. Now here comes the worrisome part.

What about all those vitamins and minerals?

This is where DIY raw feeding gets scary and many pet parents rightfully get uncomfortable. I want to assure you, it is not all that difficult once you learn the basics.

Let’s start with the easy part. The NRC has compiled their research into a library of books for animal health and nutrition. One such book is the “Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats.” In this work is a list of the known vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) required in the diet of dogs along with their recommended daily amounts. The following is the list of vitamins and minerals recommended daily by the NRC:

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B2
  • Vitamin B3
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Vitamin B6
  • Folate
  • Vitamin B12
  • Choline
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorous
  • Magnesium
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Chloride
  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Iodine
  • Selenium

The question that we must now ask is HOW MUCH of each nutrient needs to be provided. So, how much of each individual micronutrient does your dog need in daily meals? Before I answer that, take a look at the following list. This will give you an idea of the daily recommended requirements per 1,000 kcal in accordance with the NRC, AAFCO, FEDIAF, and my own research.

Vitamin A
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B3
Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Choline
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Calcium
Phosphorous
Magnesium
Potassium
Sodium
Chloride
Iron
Copper
Zinc
Manganese
Iodine
Selenium
380 RE to 16,000 RE
0.56 mg
1.4 mg
4.25 mg
4 mg
0.4 mg
68 mcg
8.75 mcg
425 mg
3.4 mcg to 20 mcg
7.5 mg
410 mcg
1,200 mg
1,000 mg
190 mg
1,250 mg
250 mg
400 mg
9 mg
1.8 mg
20 mg
1.5 mg
220 mcg
90 mcg

Looks daunting, doesn’t it? The single greatest concern I hear from pet parents is their fear that they are not or will not be able to provide all of these nutrients. And yes, it is a sensible fear. After all, your dog’s health is relying on your knowledge, efforts, and meal prep skills.

Can you just wing it? You want my honest answer? My answer is this…of course not! So now what?

Let’s start with the easy part. Of all those nutrients listed above, most of them are really quite easy to get into the diet daily. Here are the easy nutrients:

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, folate
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Chloride
  • Selenium

The following are not too difficult, but do take a little know-how:

  • Choline
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Copper

And finally, the difficult nutrients:

  • Vitamin E
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Iodine

Does it still look difficult now? It shouldn’t! You just have to focus on a few nutrients and have the confidence that the remainder of the essential nutrients are being provided with a properly planned and balanced diet. This is best done by rotating ingredients and providing several meat, organ, and bone options. Variety and rotation is the key.

Let’s go back to the HOW to be sure your dog is receiving all they require. For starters, the easy-to-source nutrients will almost always be in meals provided you are feeding at least:

  1. two skeletal proteins per meal
  2. at least one internal muscle organ such as heart
  3. you have included liver
  4. you have one other secreting organ
    And…
  5. a minimum of 10%, preferably 12%, bone. You can even go as high as 15% bone per day.

How easy is that?! Now let’s move on to the more challenging nutrients.

  • Choline
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Copper

Choline is richest in eggs. If you are feeding eggs, you have met choline needs. And if you are providing free-range eggs, you are also providing a source of vitamin D and possibly even vitamin E if the chickens are fed flaxseeds. On top of that, eggs are rich in B vitamins, calcium, selenium, iron, and zinc. Duck, quail, and even turkey eggs also provide a wealth of nutrients and benefits.

Vitamin D, besides egg yolks, is also found in fatty fish such as sardines, mackerel, and salmon. Only a small amount of fish is needed in meals. You get the benefit of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids among a wealth of other nutrients.

Vitamin K may seem tricky especially if you’re using a nutrient auditing program or spreadsheet and are not feeding vegetables, but I have news for you. There are two forms of vitamin K and dogs only require one of them. Dogs need vitamin K2 known as menaquinone. Vitamin K1 is phylloquinone, a plant form of vitamin K. In humans, the absorption rate of K1 is less than 10%. What do you think absorption rate is in dogs who have a different digestive tract from humans? You guessed it…next to none! Your dog does not need vitamin K1 which they cannot absorb. The highest sources of K2 are found in goose liver, milk products, egg yolks, and beef. Of course other meats and organs contain K2, so don’t be concerned if you are feeding in rotation.

Magnesium is really not all that difficult. It may look difficult on auditing programs due to the programs’ lack of account for bone minerals. Magnesium is found in a good amount in bones. In fact, 60% of body magnesium is stored in bones. That’s a lot of magnesium in bones! If you are feeding an ample bone percentage, your dog is getting a wealth of bioavailable magnesium along with other nutrients. Magnesium is also found in impressive amounts in salmon, mackerel, and halibut (even tuna, but I don’t recommend feeding tuna due to its mercury content). And if you’re feeling brave standing up to the myths circulating within the dog community, avocados are an excellent source of magnesium and a whole host of other nutrients. And guess what? Avocado flesh is NOT toxic to dogs. Don’t be shy, add a small amount to meals!

Iron is also quite easy to source if you are regularly feeding red meats, organs, and adding myoglobin. Myoglobin is the red juice drippings from meat and organs that many people mistake for blood. It is a very rich source of iron and amino acids. And guess where else iron is found? BONES!

Copper is actually TOO easy to source and that can be a problem because too much is NOT a good thing. If you are feeding beef/calf liver and/or lamb liver, be careful not to feed too much. Copper can cause toxicity and zinc deficiency. BUT, if you’re not feeding beef or lamb liver, your copper will be too low. So be sure to feed beef, calf, and/or lamb liver as a regular part of meals in just the right amount for your dog’s needs.

Do you see the common denominators in the above? They are:

  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Bones
  • Liver

You should already be adding these to your dog’s diet anyway. Let’s move on to the hardest to source nutrients which you are about to find out are just as simple as all the rest.

  • Vitamin E
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Iodine

Vitamin E is rich in flax-fed free-range egg yolks. It is even found in the bone marrow of mammals. Yet, is it enough to meet requirements? What if I told you that selenium does the job of vitamin E? If you are feeding ample amounts of selenium (which is not at all hard to do) then vitamin E is not essential. It is just an extra bonus in meals. Many pet parents purchase a natural vitamin E oil supplement and add a few drops of oil to meals. Easy peasy!

Zinc is also not difficult. In fact, zinc is quite easy to source. Bone is an excellent source of zinc as are oysters. Oysters are extremely high in zinc, so much so that you need only add small amounts to meals. And the best part is you can buy them just about anywhere in the canned fish aisle. (Psst…Walmart!)

Manganese is actually a tough one if you are not feeding large amount of RMBs with connective tissues. Manganese is rich in joint tissue, ligaments, cartilage, trachea, and bone marrow. It is also found in green tripe. These ingredients are not always feasible, so another rich source is mussels. If you can source mussels, you have your manganese requirement met well over what your dog requires.

Iodine is also not difficult. Nearly all foods contain trace amounts of iodine. Iodine is found in free-range eggs and dairy products. The easiest source of iodine is the seaweed kelp. But because kelp is so high in iodine, you must take great caution to be sure you only ever use a supplement that is analyzed for iodine levels. NEVER exceed the recommended dose for your dog. And if you have a large breed, do NOT exceed 300 mcg.To discover how much of each nutrient your dog needs, use the information in the previous lesson to determine your dog’s estimated calorie requirements per day.

To discover how much of each nutrient your dog needs, use the information in the previous lesson to determine your dog’s estimated calorie requirements per day.

If your dog needs more than 1,000 calories, multiply the NRC (et all) recommended nutrient amounts listed above by your dog’s calorie need. This is how is it done.

  1. Magnesium requirement per 1,000 kcal = 190 mg
  2. If your dog requires 1,575 calories per day, you will multiply by 1.575.
  3. 190 mg x 1.575 = 299.25 mg magnesium / day

If your dog requires less than 1,000 calories per day, also multiply in the same manner.

  1. Folate requirement per 1,000 kcal = 68 mcg
  2. If your dog requires 430 calories per day, you will multiply by 0.43.
  3. 68 mcg x 0.43 = 29.24 mcg folate / day

Do the exact same math for every nutrient and you will have all of your dog’s daily requirements. Make sure you keep them in a safe spot to save you from doing the math all over again!

©2019 Kimberly Lloyd, PhD, BCHHP, Cert Raw Dog Food Nutritionist

These lessons are the property of The Holistic Canine. ©2019 Copyright; use only with permission.


Raw Feeding Guide

©2019 Updated Version

Offering your dog the best possible nutrition plan does not have to be complicated. Not only that, but it does not have to cost you a fortune nor take up hours of your time providing daily meals. Your number one goal should be to supply your dog with everything he needs to cultivate and maintain optimal health along with preventing internal imbalance. Now this may seem like a lofty goal, but I want to assure you, it is not difficult once you learn the basics of meal preparation.

On that note, I want to briefly address the popular “complete and balanced” concept invented by the dog food industry. While the idea of mastering a “complete and balanced” nutrition plan may be on your radar as the ultimate goal, please understand that this is a misguided endeavor. Not only is “complete and balanced” unfeasible, impractical, and based on a cleverly crafted marketing scheme, but the science does not exist to show what this actually looks like. The reason for this is because every biological being has its own unique needs. While domestic canines do have specific energy and nutrient requirements, exactly how much of each nutrient is not exactly clear. Couple this with the fact that energy and nutrient needs change (sometimes daily) based on external and internal conditions, and we are left with a science that is uncertain and theoretical.

What we do have is observational science. What this teaches us is that each species on this planet has its own unique nutritional requirements and therefore consumes very specific food in order to receive from that specific food vital energy and nutritional components. Physiologically, the bodies of each and every species is uniquely designed (or evolved, whichever you prefer) to breakdown (digest) only specific foods from which they are perfectly able to release and utilize the nutritional components from within that food source. These foods are what are known as species-appropriate. For our canines to thrive, we do know which foods they specifically require to promote and cultivate optimal health and optimal health maintenance.

Your dog is anatomically and physiologically a carnivore that, due to the thousands of years of living with and beside humans, has adapted the ability to consume, passably digest, and partially utilize nutrients from carbohydrate-dense foods making your dog a facultative carnivore. However, more than a century of commercial dog food consumption has clearly shown us the worrisome statistics and results from feeding dogs a starch-based diet. While a dog may be able to survive on this type of diet, their quality of life is greatly diminished and the cultivation of optimal health is difficult, complicated, and in many dogs, impossible. Thus, what you feed your dog is critical. Fresh raw species-appropriate food allows your dog to properly unlock and easily absorb vital nutrients in an unhindered manner.

To cultivate optimal health your dog needs whole and/or partial prey or a combination of muscle meats, organs, bones, connective tissues, vessels, skin, and fur/feathers to thrive. Of those two options, providing the latter is far more feasible for the majority of pet parents.

Dogs have no need or use for carbohydrates such as starches, sugars, or fiber. Despite this, there is growing evidence that suggests there may be some benefit to offering your dog small amounts of vegetables and fruit provided it is fed in the correct form. Vegetables require steaming, boiling, and pureeing or juicing. Otherwise, there will be little to no benefit. In fact, most of the most healthful vegetables contain oxalates, phytates, lectins, solanine, chaconine, and goitrogens, for example, all of which can be dangerous to your dog and inhibit overall nutrient absorption from his meals. Cooking helps to remove some of these anti-nutrients making it safer and more beneficial. Keep in mind that vegetables are only optional and are unnecessary in the diet. Fruit, on the other hand, can be offered whole or pureed in small amounts between meals as treats.

Are you ready to begin providing your dog with the most beneficial nutrition plan?

Welcome to The Holistic Canine’s Raw Feeding Guide! The guide uses a ratio guideline as your starting point. The ratio is a rough representation of the approximate meat, organ, and bone composition of whole prey. Creating meals or a day’s worth of meals with the following ratio guideline is simple. You may even choose to provide these percentages over a week’s time. However, despite many veterinarians and canine nutrition professionals recommending balance over a week’s time, I do not recommend that. Balance over a few days is fine, but a week is not my preferred method. For my own six dogs, I provide the balance daily.

When creating meals with the ratio as your guide, you want your main focus to be on providing all of the nutrients that your dog requires to be optimally healthy. If you are unsure of your dog’s NRC, FEDIAF, or AAFCO nutrient recommendations, go to my article here to discover what your dog requires or contact me for assistance. Once you have those in hand, you are ready to create species-appropriate meals!

If you would like a FREE pdf copy of the guide, go to the contact page and request your free copy.

80% MEAT

65% muscle, 15% organ muscle

Beef
Chicken
Turkey
Goat
Lamb
Mutton
Pork
Rabbit
Duck
Quail
Salmon, Mackerel
Sardines, Anchovies
Oysters, Mussels
Whiting, trout
Venison
Bison
Elk
Llama
Emu
Heart
Gizzards
Green Tripe
Cheek
Tongue
Lung
Trachea*
Eggs (chicken, duck, quail)
Off cuts, Briskets, Fillets, Grinds

*thyroid hormone contamination and exposure is possible

Meat Provides:
Protein (amino acids)
Fats (essential fatty acids)
Zinc
Phosphorous
Potassium
Copper
Nitrogen
Iron
Magnesium
Selenium
Chromium
Carnosine (antioxidant)
Carbon
B vitamins
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Folate
Creatine

10% – 15% BONE

12% – 15% puppies

Chicken thighs
Chicken drums
Chicken necks
Chicken wings
Chicken feet
Chicken backs
Chicken carcass
Turkey necks
Turkey backs
Turkey wings
Goat ribs
Goat necks
Lamb/sheep ribs
Lamb/sheep neck
Ox tail
Beef neck
Duck heads
Duck feet
Duck necks
Duck wings
Duck backs
Cornish hen frames
Quail frames
Poultry carcass
Rabbit ribs
Rabbit thigh
Rabbit heads
Rabbit feet
Pork neck
Pork tail
Pork ribs
Pig feet
Bone Provides:
Calcium
Magnesium
Chloride
Potassium
Phosphorous
Sodium
Sulfur
Silica
Marrow Provides:
Fatty Acids
Iron
Zinc
Selenium
Manganese
Vitamin A
Vitamin K
Vitamin E
Boron

Connective Tissues Provide:
Glucosamine
Chondroitin

10% ORGAN

5% liver, 5% other secreting

Beef/calf liver
Beef kidney
Beef spleen
Beef pancreas
Bull testicles*
Chicken liver
Turkey liver
Duck liver
Brain
Eyes
Pork liver
Pork kidney
Pork spleen
Pork pancreas
Pork thymus (sweetbreads)
Goat/sheep liver
Goat/sheep kidney
Goat/sheep spleen
Goat/sheep testicles*
Ovaries*

*hormone exposure is likely, feed with caution or do not feed to intact dogs

Organs Provide:
Protein (amino acids)
Fats (fatty acids)
Iron
Selenium
Phosphorous
Manganese
Chromium
Nitrogen
Copper
Zinc
Potassium
Magnesium
Sodium
Co-Enzyme Q10
Carbon
Vitamin A
B vitamins
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Vitamin C

FRUIT & VEGETABLES

May feed 5% up to 10% (NON-essentials)

Raspberries
Blueberries
Blackberries
Cranberries
Watermelon
Apples
Pears
Rosemary
Basil
Parsley*
Thyme
Zucchini
Lettuces
Cucumber
Wheatgrass
Spinach*
Broccoli*
Cauliflower †
Pumpkin
Asparagus
Barley grass
Avocado

*Contains oxalates. Oxalates bind with iron and calcium and contribute to kidney stones

Inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormones, feed in MODERATION

NOTE: I do NOT recommend feeding fruits with meals. In the presence of protein and fat, fruit ferments in the stomach and gut contributing to stomach upset, intestinal irritation, loose stools, and an increased risk for Bloat (a deadly condition).

Fruits & Vegetables Provide:
ALL vitamins
ALL minerals                                                      
Phytonutrients
Antioxidants                                                                     
Fiber

OTHER FOODS TO SUPPLEMENT

Beneficial Non-essentials

Goat’s milk
Kefir
Cottage cheese
Raw milk
Hemp seeds (raw, ground)
Pumpkin seeds (raw, ground)
Chia seeds (ground, gelled)
Kelp
Spirulina, Chlorella
Marine phytoplankton
Alfalfa powder
Golden paste

Coconut oil
MCT oil
Hemp seed oil
Flaxseed oil
Krill oil
Bone broth
Fish stock
Medicinal mushrooms
Apple cider vinegar
Coconut water
Green lipped mussel powder
Diatomaceous earth (food grade)

My recommendation is to add these supplemental foods, powders, and oils AS NEEDED for their nutrient profiles, to balance fats in a meal, for extra calories, for their medicinal properties and constituents, and for a functional purpose such as digestive aid, worm prevention, natural therapies, and chronic disease and cancer preventative and therapy.

Do NOT Feed

  • Grapes
  • Raisins
  • Onions, all (garlic is still under debate)
  • Green tomatoes
  • Artificial sweeteners (ALL!!)
  • Xylitol
  • Alcohol
  • Cacao (cocoa & chocolate)
  • Walnuts & macadamia nuts
  • Whole grains (corn included)
  • Legumes (soy included)
  • Rawhide
  • Processed snack foods
  • Sugars & candy
  • Yeast, dough
  • Corn on the cob
  • Bell pepper seeds
  • Hot peppers
  • Blue cheese
  • Gum
  • Mouthwash, toothpaste
  • Cooked fat
  • Cooked bones
  • Hops
  • Tomato and avocado leaves
  • Cat food
  • Peanut butter spreads*

*Peanut butter spreads are not peanut butter. Peanut butter is peanuts only (salt may be added). Peanut butter spreads contain thinning oils and often sweeteners. Xylitol is a zero calorie sweetener commonly added to spreads. This is DEADLY.

HOW TO CREATE A MEAL

You will want to feed 2% to 4% of your dog’s ideal body weight. Puppies require 4% of their projected adult weight or 7% to 10% of current weight until 3% of their projected adult weight is reached.

Whole prey is balanced perfectly without the need for plants. If you cannot feed whole prey, use a ratio as a guide:

80/10/10

This means = 80% meat, 10% bone, 10% organs.

My preferred ratio is a breakdown of 80/10/10. It looks like this:

65/15/10/5/5

This means =  

  • 65% muscle meat + 15% organ muscle (80%)
  • 10% bone (MINIMUM)
  • 5% liver + 5% other secreting organ (10%)

Feeding with raw meaty bones (RMB):

  • 65/15 meat = 40% to 60% meaty bone(s) + 5% to 25% boneless meat + 15% organ muscle meats
  • 10 organ = 5% liver + 5% other secreting organ(s)

Ideally, your meals will consist of approximately:

  • 40%-60% RMB
  • 5%-25% boneless meats
  • 15% organ muscle
  • 5% liver
  • 5% other secreting organ(s)
  • You may wish to try creating a semi-whole animal using various animal parts if you cannot feed whole prey. We call this Frankenprey. This also helps to feed ratios most similar to whole prey.
  • Feed three meals per day for puppies under 12 weeks old.
  • Feed two meals per day for puppies older than 12 weeks.
  • I recommend feeding adults one meal per day to benefit from fasting. Some people and dogs prefer or need two meals per day. Feed according to your dog’s needs or your schedule/convenience.

You will want to discover your dog’s nutrient requirements for his/her age and weight. You can use the nutrient requirements recommended by the NRC, FEDIAF, AAFCO, or The Holistic Canine. You will find nutrient requirements for dogs and puppies here. The nutrient charts are based on 1,000 kcal. If you need assistance learning your dog’s specific requirements, contact me for assistance.

Remember the ratio is ONLY A GUIDE. There is no rule that dictates that the ratio needs to be followed exactly. The main goal is to provide the highest balanced nutrient saturation in each meal or meals per day without creating or causing an imbalance within your dog. An imbalance can be caused by the creation of a dangerous nutrient antagonism or synergism in meals, not feeding enough ingredient variety in a consistent rotation, feeding species-inappropriate foods, adding/feeding too many plant ingredients (especially with anti-nutrients), meals consistently lacking in necessary nutrients, meals consistently excessive in a particular nutrient or nutrients, or veering too far off the ratio guideline. Some dogs require higher bone percentages.

Bones can be fed up to 25% of the diet. Do not exceed 25%.

Please note: feeding raw does not necessarily increase the life expectancy of every dog. What it does do is greatly reduce the risk and rate of chronic disease as well as improves quality of life. Many dogs do in fact live very long lives on raw diets, others do not. However, had those shorter lived dogs not been raw fed, their lives would likely have been even shorter. Understand that by feeding a species-appropriate diet you are providing your dog with the best possible nutrition IF and ONLY IF you follow a balanced raw protocol. The Holistic Canine exists to make sure you do just that. We are here to help!

©2019 Kimberly Lloyd, PhD, BCHHP, Cert Raw Dog Food Nutritionist

©2019 Created by The Holistic Canine, Macon, GA